What does color wheel mean? Primary colors, color theory according to Itten Küppers & Goethe
What does color wheel mean?
A color wheel is a circular arrangement to get an overview of the colors in the system. It is used by artists and art enthusiasts as an aid in the choice of color in order to create a harmonious interplay for a work of art, living or fashion.
There are different versions of the color circles, which are influenced depending on physical, aesthetic, physiological, artistic and technical points. Therefore, when choosing a color wheel, one must define precisely, because not all points in a color wheel are compatible.
What are the primary colors called?
What are the primary colors? What are the primary colors? The basic colors or also the first primary colors are blue, yellow and red. They cannot be formed and mixed from other colors. They are the foundation and basis to form other color mixtures. Therefore, they are also classified as primary colors.
What is the Itten color wheel?
The Itten color wheel was created by the Swiss artist Johannes Itten from Bern. He created a classification system for colors that is still taught in many schools today.
It is divided into primary, secondary and tertiary colors and is derived from the mixture of the individual colors. The division 50:50 blue and red results in the color violet. Yellow and blue 50:50 mix the color to create green. Mix red and yellow paint 50:50 will mix to the color orange. Together, the color solutions form the secondary colors. The tertiary colors are resolved into secondary colors by the higher proportions of the respective primary colors, for example blue-violet, blue-green, orange-red, crimson, dark yellow or light green.
What is the division and color theory according to Itten?
In the core, the primary colors red, yellow, blue are adjacent to each other as a triangle. These form the second core layer/secondary colors, mixed from the primary colors in a 50:50 ratio, green violet and orange from the core. In the outer ring, the proportions of the mixture are changed by individual corner points of the primary and secondary colors, so that the tertiary colors are created according to Itten's color theory.
What is the color wheel according to Küppers?
Küppers was a printing technician from Tired. He designed a color wheel based on the additive and subtractive mixing of colors. His basic Küppers color theory and theory were created with the help of the human eye.
Through the primal colors orange-red, violet-blue and green, all primary colors are formed and derived from them. This is how basic colors are mixed like cyan blue, yellow, light green, magenta red, violet blue and many more. On the other hand, if you mix all the primary colors, you get white. In his opinion, the basic model is not a circle according to Itten, but a hexagon. Black and white, on the other hand, are achromatic colors for him.
What is the color theory according to Goethe?
Goethe was one of the world's most famous poets. He was not only a brilliant writer, but also an explorer and researcher of natural phenomena. From this work sprang his theories and theory of colors about the effect of light and darkness on colors. His realization was that there is a plus side to, for example, liveliness and splendor of warm colors like yellow, red, orange and green.
While the minus side stands for the cold restlessness shadow weakness darkness like blue violet tones. Also in his circle there are color transitions and a mixture of cold and warm colors. Both are opposites and form opposite poles between the transitions with the colors purple and green as complementary colors. In his view, color studies were used to examine the effect of colors on the human mind in order to derive aesthetic, scientific and mathematical insights from them.
How to use color circles
Basically, you don't need color circles for painting and drawing artworks. But if you have thought about the composition of the picture, the combination of colors and the purpose of your picture in advance, you can address many people and viewers with your drawing. Color circles help you to convey which colors and combinations you want to use to create which mood and effect.
Therefore, it is always advisable to do a little planning, ideas and inspiration beforehand in order to really express your intention in the work. In life we also encounter many works, drafts and designs from architecture, fashion and art that appeal to us. These have also been carefully planned and fulfill their purpose. They usually have a context, an analogous color composition, are probably based on a complementary basis, are monochromatic or triadic.
What can we learn from color theory?
The theory of colors shows us how much variation and variety there is in the world. Through this there is not only light and dark / ups and downs, but also defines uniqueness, authenticity, liveliness, variety and variability. The broad spectrum leaves, among other things, contradictions but also connectedness in all things that exist. With colors we really see the world as we want to see it.